# Hyper-V: Post#1

## intro

This is a post I should have posted a long time ago, but I didn’t because of various reasons: laziness, lack of time, greed, eating bananas, composting shits, kind of burnout, ego to make it to BH USA first (and been screwed each time with different set of Hyper-V RCEs 4 times in a row ahaha; just a reference to highlight that conferences are not the only way to go - note for myself in the future :).

In a series of blogpost that I am writing, I aim to look at RCE bugs that are in scope for MSFT Hyper-V Bounty Program to study the state of Hyper-V Vulnerability research: state of code, type of bugs, complexity of reaching or detecting them, my 5cents regarding recent confusion about what is in scope and why, and finally some examples for setbacks of big bounties. For the next posts, I plan on discussing how to setup effective Hyper-V fuzzing and research environment, the type of fuzzers and automation, and as a bonus pinpointing targets that are not so obvious, and areas that I did not cover properly yet. Posts may or may not contain easter eggs, happy hunting!

I will try to be brief cuz it is not rocket science, so without further ado let’s dig in.

## bugzzz ( fyi all bugs discussed here are fixed )

### vsmb - nice bugs : fuzzing is cool [CVE-2020-17095]

• vmusrv.dll : responsible for efficient sharing files host to guest, windows based containers
• Is there { cancel / flush / remove / other early drop of packet } logic in your target? If you haven’t fuzzed those yet then you should: it usually is bull’s eye without question.
long Smb2ExecuteCancel(_SRV_WORK_ITEM *param_1)
{
SrvCancelWorkItem((_SRV_WORK_ITEM *)piVar2,2); // here can deref UAF too

LOCK();
iVar1 = *piVar2;
*piVar2 = *piVar2 + -1; // refcounter

if (iVar1 == 1) { // boom
SrvFreeWorkItem((_SRV_WORK_ITEM *)piVar2);
->  long Smb2CleanupWorkItem(_SRV_WORK_ITEM *param_1)
->  Remove((RfsTable ptr ptr)(p_Var5 + 0x28),(uint)uVar6,false); // unreferenced from list after item marked for deletion -> ref counter == 0
• takes me longer time to dig this one out because I miss the sync/async flag of additional cancel packet functionality in documentation, and here we have
long Smb2ValidateCancel(_SRV_WORK_ITEM param_1)
{

if (((byte)p_Var7[0x10] & 2) == 0) { // sync

else { // async
if ((ulonglong )(p_Var7 + 0x20) < 0x100000000) {
pvVar8 = Lookup((RfsTable *)(p_Var6 + 0x28),(uint)(ulonglong *)(p_Var7 + 0x20));
}

void * __thiscall Lookup(RfsTable *this,uint param_1)
{
void *pvVar1;
AcquireSRWLockShared((PSRWLOCK)this);

pvVar1 = (void *)0x0;
if ((((param_1 != 0) && (param_1 < *(uint *)(this + 0x3c) || param_1 == *(uint *)(this + 0x3c)))
&& (pvVar1 = *(void *)((longlong *)(this + 8) + (ulonglong)(param_1 - 1) * 8),
pvVar1 != (void )0x0)) && ((code **)(this + 0x48) != (code *)0x0)) {
(**(code **)(this + 0x48))();
}
ReleaseSRWLockShared((PSRWLOCK)this);
return pvVar1; // we return plain ptr in async manner
}
• I found it while analyzing code coverage reports, spoting uncovered interesting code blocks
• The root cause: you can race ChangeNotify + async Cancel packets, ChangeNotify will try to delete object as the refcount of its work item drops to 0, but Cancel can race this process while work_item is still found in LookupList. Thus later execution of Cancel packet ( as async flag was done, first phase was just by validation of Cancel packet and looking up - refcounting from 0 back to 1 ), will deref free-ed work_item. At first sight, it all seemed good, refcounting in place, locking too.. Though strange logic of removing an object from a list from the object’s own destructor. Also interesting we can acquire object which have refcount == 0 once it already acquired refcount >= 1
• How I fuzzed it: adding a particular flag to Cancel packet, and let automation do its job in 5mins hit.. and to be honest looked at that logic with my eyes before triggering it by fuzzer and … I did not find it:
vmusrv!SrvFreeWorkItem+0x1bc:
00007ffbc1b127f8 4c397f50        cmp     qword ptr [rdi+50h],r15 ds:000002109cd3ed40=????????????????

vsmb, older bug, bonus:

• open vsmb file
• get a predictable file handle
• bug: race open + close with predictable handle
• cve: forgotten.. around 2018
• how I fuzzed it: understanding of target (predictable handle + that packet is tied to file handles) and adding quirks to fuzzing (prediction of the handle before its creation, dangling handles), not especially focused on that logic, just taking it into account (fuzzing is specific per target)

### 9p - ugly one : may the force be with you [CVE-2021-26867]

• vp9fs.dll : responsible for efficient sharing files host to guest, linux based containers
• again Remove:
void operator()( param_1)
:
TVar2 = operator()(this); // Remove RequestInfo from LinkedList
-> void __thiscall Remove(LinkedList<struct_p9fs::Handler::RequestInfo> *this,RequestInfo *param_1)

~((longlong)(param_1 + 0xb0)); // Free RequestInfo*
• well this looks especially solid, also order remove + delete looks good. but problem is that Remove actually to happen/trigger, callstack must look like this
FLUSH_ENTRYYY
rcx=000001faa4395ef0
REMOVE
rcx=000001faa1158f10
rdx=000001faa4192fe0
000000222e97e618 00007ffcb93d83c0 vp9fs!p9fs::util::LinkedList<p9fs::Handler::RequestInfo>::Remove
000000222e97e620 00007ffcb93d61c3 vp9fs!p9fs::Handler::ProcessMessage$_ResumeCoro$2+0x1240
000000222e97ec40 00007ffcb93afa34 vp9fs!p9fs::Handler::ProcessMessage$_InitCoro$1+0x12f
000000222e97ece0 00007ffcb93cc061 vp9fs!p9fs::Handler::ProcessMessage+0x68
000000222e97f140 00007ffcb93cbcc4 vp9fs!<lambda_8c0f73b7442b169e13d3115da82aed7d>$_ResumeCoro$2::operator()+0x341
000000222e97f410 00007ffcb93afd56 vp9fs!<lambda_8c0f73b7442b169e13d3115da82aed7d>$_InitCoro$1::operator()+0xd0
000000222e97f480 00007ffcb93caa73 vp9fs!<lambda_8c0f73b7442b169e13d3115da82aed7d>::operator()+0x46
000000222e97f5f0 00007ffcb93a6a32 vp9fs!<lambda_1cce8f953904a6d717908b4c35b3a59d>$_ResumeCoro$2::operator()+0xd3
000000222e97f7e0 00007ffcb93bf641 vp9fs!p9fs::Scheduler::RunAndRelease+0xbe
000000222e97f820 00007ffccec631e0 vp9fs!p9fs::CoroutineIoIssuer::Callback+0x71
000000222e97f850 00007ffcd0feecd9 KERNELBASE!BasepTpIoCallback+0x50
000000222e97f8a0 00007ffcd0fc2536 ntdll!TppIopExecuteCallback+0x129
000000222e97f920 00007ffccfa27034 ntdll!TppWorkerThread+0x456
000000222e97fc20 00007ffcd0ffcec1 KERNEL32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
000000222e97fc50 0000000000000000 ntdll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21

FREE
rbx=000001faa4196fb8
rcx=000001faa4192fe0

000000222e97f5c0 00007ffcb93cb08c vp9fs!<lambda_8c0f73b7442b169e13d3115da82aed7d>::~<lambda_8c0f73b7442b169e13d3115da82aed7d>+0xd
000000222e97f5f0 00007ffcb93a6a32 vp9fs!<lambda_1cce8f953904a6d717908b4c35b3a59d>$_ResumeCoro$2::operator()+0x6ec
000000222e97f7e0 00007ffcb93bf641 vp9fs!p9fs::Scheduler::RunAndRelease+0xbe
000000222e97f820 00007ffccec631e0 vp9fs!p9fs::CoroutineIoIssuer::Callback+0x71
000000222e97f850 00007ffcd0feecd9 KERNELBASE!BasepTpIoCallback+0x50
000000222e97f8a0 00007ffcd0fc2536 ntdll!TppIopExecuteCallback+0x129
000000222e97f920 00007ffccfa27034 ntdll!TppWorkerThread+0x456
000000222e97fc20 00007ffcd0ffcec1 KERNEL32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
000000222e97fc50 0000000000000000 ntdll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21
• note : we are about here to call from operator : vp9fs!<lambda_1cce8f953904a6d717908b4c35b3a59d>$_ResumeCoro$2::operator()

• pay attention that callstack is quite deep to actually reach the Remove function, but here it comes the magic of C++ and throwing exceptions before reaching Remove, and vioala we got stack like this :

FLUSH_ENTRYYY
rcx=000001faa43a1ef0
onecore\vm\dv\storage\plan9\dll\windows\p9io.cpp(128)\vp9fs.dll!00007FFCB93DFFCF: (caller: 00007FFCB93DF71A) Exception(1) tid(f9c) 800703E3 The I/O operation has been aborted because of either a thread exit or an application request.
(6c0.f9c): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)
(6c0.f9c): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)
(6c0.f9c): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)
(6c0.f9c): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)
onecore\vm\dv\storage\plan9\dll\p9handler.cpp(1039)\vp9fs.dll!00007FFCB93E562B: (caller: 00007FFCB93CBCC4) LogHr(1) tid(f9c) 800703E3 The I/O operation has been aborted because of either a thread exit or an application request.
Msg:[onecore\vm\dv\storage\plan9\dll\windows\p9io.cpp(128)\vp9fs.dll!00007FFCB93DFFCF: (caller: 00007FFCB93DF71A) Exception(1) tid(f9c) 800703E3 The I/O operation has been aborted because of either a thread exit or an application request.
]
FREE
rbx=000001faa41a2fb8
rcx=000001faa419efe0
000000222e97f5c0 00007ffcb93cb08c vp9fs!<lambda_8c0f73b7442b169e13d3115da82aed7d>::~<lambda_8c0f73b7442b169e13d3115da82aed7d>+0xd
000000222e97f5f0 00007ffcb93a6a32 vp9fs!<lambda_1cce8f953904a6d717908b4c35b3a59d>$_ResumeCoro$2::operator()+0x6ec
000000222e97f7e0 00007ffcb93bf641 vp9fs!p9fs::Scheduler::RunAndRelease+0xbe
000000222e97f820 00007ffccec631e0 vp9fs!p9fs::CoroutineIoIssuer::Callback+0x71
000000222e97f850 00007ffcd0feecd9 KERNELBASE!BasepTpIoCallback+0x50
000000222e97f8a0 00007ffcd0fc2536 ntdll!TppIopExecuteCallback+0x129
000000222e97f920 00007ffccfa27034 ntdll!TppWorkerThread+0x456
000000222e97fc20 00007ffcd0ffcec1 KERNEL32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
000000222e97fc50 0000000000000000 ntdll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21
• aka, we bubble out from exception (overload of packets) without removing struct from list, but deleting it anyway, ouch …

• root cause: when exception unwinding happens, it is forgotten to handle proper removal of the object from the list but at the same time free is done correctly :)

vp9fs!p9fs::Handler::HandleFlush$_ResumeCoro$2+0x48c:
00007ff8e2df033c 0fb74918        movzx   ecx,word ptr [rcx+18h] ds:000002542129dff8=????
• how I fuzzed it: when doing code coverage you are restricted to a few dozens of calls due to reproducibility, also you want to have as many calls enabled (open, close, flush, cancel, write, seek, attr, etc.). But sometimes brute force and extreme cases do their job, yeah you can call it dummy fuzzing shame on me :( aka total call limit I raised to several thousands, and doing filtering of calls (an only subset of calls will be called per run), moreover sometimes you want to run several fuzzers at once for one target (however not necessarily in this case), dummy dummy yammy yammy

• How to reach to fuzz :

• tinker linux kernel code to allow sending packets from your fuzzer
• or again, load and fuzz standalone

### vmwp - well, what is fuzzing anyway [CVE-2021-28314]

• vmwp.exe : main process per VM, loading dlls like vmusrv.dll or vp9fs.dll, driver communication like vid, vmswitch, ..
• check this, hint ~ refcounting:
void __thiscall Teardown(VirtualMachine * this)

1400513bd:

this_00 = *(WorkerCpuidHandler **)(this + 0x240);
if (this_00 != (WorkerCpuidHandler *)0x0) {
puVar7 = *(undefined8 **)(this_00 + 0x30);
while (puVar7 != *(undefined8 **)(this_00 + 0x38)) {
(**(code **)(*(longlong *)(*(longlong *)(this_00 + 0x10) + 8) + 0x38))
((longlong *)(*(longlong *)(this_00 + 0x10) + 8),*puVar7);
puVar7 = puVar7 + 1;
}
*(undefined8 *)(this_00 + 0x38) = *(undefined8 *)(this_00 + 0x30);
TeardownRegisteredResults(this_00);
pIVar5 = (IMetricManager *)(*(longlong *)(this + 0x240) + 8);
DecrementUserCount((VmSharableObject *)
((type_info *)pIVar5 +
*(int *)(*(longlong *)(*(longlong *)(this + 0x240) + 8) + 4)),
(type_info *)pIVar5);
*(undefined8 *)(this + 0x240) = 0;
}
...

00007ff78836ad25 vmwp!WorkerCpuidHandler::vector deleting destructor'+0x0000000000000035
00007ff7883266ca vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::OnLastContainedObjectRemoved+0x000000000000001e
00007ff788322fbf vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::DecrementContainedObjectCount+0x000000000000007b
00007ff78832307d vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::DecrementWeakUserCount+0x000000000000009d
00007ff788319011 vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::DecrementUserCount+0x000000000000630d
00007ff78836141c vmwp!VirtualMachine::Teardown+0x00000000000001d0
00007ff78832973a vmwp!WorkerModule::TeardownVirtualMachine+0x00000000000000ae
00007ff788326bb2 vmwp!WorkerModule::OnVirtualMachinePostFunctional+0x0000000000000012
00007ff7883237fd vmwp!Vml::VmMethodDelegate<WorkerModule,void,Vml::VmReferencePtr<Vml::VmSharableObject,Vml::VmWeakReferenceTraits> >::Execute+0x000000000000002d
00007ff788325b65 vmwp!Vml::VmDispatchContext::Invoke+0x000000000000001d
00007ff788358f6d vmwp!Vml::VmOrderedDispatcher::ProcessQueue+0x000000000000002d
00007fffcdfd39c0 ntdll!TppWorkpExecuteCallback+0x0000000000000130
• and this, hint ~ locking:
HandleVndCallback(VndCompletionHandler *this,void *param_1,_VID_MSG_DATA *param_2, _VID_MSG_RETURN_DATA *param_3)
140149ee2:
if (uVar10 != 0x1000010) {
this_00 = *(VmSharableObject **)(param_2 + 8);
*(undefined8 *)(param_2 + 8) = *(undefined8 *)(this_00 + 0x78);
if ((((uVar10 == 1) || (uVar10 == 7)) || (uVar10 == 9)) ||
((0x1000001 < (int)uVar10 &&
(((int)uVar10 < 0x1000004 ||
((0x100000d < (int)uVar10 && (((int)uVar10 < 0x1000010 || (uVar10 == 0x1000011)))))
))))) {
ppcVar12 = *(code ***)(this_00 + 0x80);
if ((uVar10 - 7 & 0xfffffffd) == 0) {
*local_68 = 0;
local_c8 = CONCAT44(local_c8._4_4_,0xffffffff);
ppuVar13 = (undefined **)&DAT_00000002;
iVar8 = VidHandleMessageAndGetNextMessage(param_1,2,&local_68);
if (iVar8 == 0) {
ppuVar13 = (undefined **)0x26e;
Log_Hr(local_res0,0x26e,
"onecore\\vm\\worker\\vidpartition\\vndcompletionhandler.cpp",-0x7fff0001);
iVar8 = VmlIsDebugTraceEnabled(0);
if (iVar8 != 0) {
ppuVar13 = &PTR_u_Unexpected_erro_140195b28;
VmlDebugTraceEx(0);
}
}
DecrementUserCount(this_00,(type_info *)ppuVar13);
}

void __thiscall UnprepareSelf(VND_HANDLER_CONTEXT *this)

{
type_info *in_RDX;

if (*(int *)(this + 0x88) != 0) {
in_RDX = *(type_info **)(this + 0x78);
(**(code **)(**(longlong **)(this + 0x80) + 0x28))(); //-> vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::DecrementUserCount
}

000000e282eff500 00007ff788459d2e vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::DecrementUserCount+0x59
000000e282eff530 00007ff788329a6a vmwp!VND_HANDLER_CONTEXT::UnprepareSelf+0x2e
000000e282eff560 00007ff7883267b0 vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::Unprepare+0x1e
000000e282eff590 00007ff788319009 vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::OnLastUserRemoved+0x94
000000e282eff5d0 00007ff78845a057 vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::DecrementUserCount+0x6305
000000e282eff600 00007ff78845b5ac vmwp!VndCompletionHandler::HandleVndCallback+0x227
000000e282eff6f0 00007ff78845ac69 vmwp!VndCompletionThread::RunSelf+0x10c
000000e282eff760 00007fffcb9b14c2 vmwp!Vml::VmThread::OnRunThread+0x19
000000e282eff790 00007fffba186a74 ucrtbase!thread_start<unsigned int (__cdecl*)(void *),1>+0x42
000000e282eff7c0 00007fffcc1e7034 vfbasics!AVrfpStandardThreadFunction+0x44
000000e282eff800 00007fffcdfbcec1 kernel32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
000000e282eff830 0000000000000000 ntdll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21
• The root cause: Read Only State is a beautiful concept I aspire to. But it can have dangers once your design is not ready for it, aka in this case developer can see read-only access at HandleCallback and skip to do any lock at all, but in the background there is refcounting. At least that was my interpretation. So it may not be obvious for a developer to include write lock here. But.. refcounting can race too :)
vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::DecrementUserCount+0x59:
00007ff788312d5d 488b07          mov     rax,qword ptr [rdi] ds:00000210`a424bfb0=????????????????

• How I fuzzed it: automation .. essentially can be seen as a by-product while fuzzing at scale. Well.. what I realized fuzzing is, and why automation is an essential part of your fuzzing efforts, not only as automation, will be in the scope of the next post. Meanwhile to sum it up, lucky me :)

• How to reach to fuzz :
• POC
• example how to make Race Conditions better demonstrate for repro
• second part of poc is turn on+off VM
.childdbg 1
g

.logopen sharablebuggy.txt;

r @$t1 = 0 bp vmwp!VirtualMachine::InitInterceptHandlers+0x154 "r @$t1 = @rax+60; g"

bp vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::DecrementUserCount+0x59 ".if(@\$t1==@rdi+10){.echo RACER_1_FREEZED; bd 1 2; be 4; dqs rdi; r rip = vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::DecrementUserCount-2; eb rip eb fe}.else{}; g"

bp vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::DecrementUserCount-2 ".echo RACER_1_RESUMED___UAF_TRIGGER; r rip = vmwp!Vml::VmSharableObject::DecrementUserCount+0x59; g"

bu vmwp!VirtualMachine::Teardown+0x1d0-5 ".echo RACER_2_TEARDOWN_FREEZED; bd 3; r rip = vmwp!VirtualMachine::Teardown-2; eb rip eb fe; g"

bp vmwp!VirtualMachine::Teardown-2 ".echo RACER_2_TEARDOWN_RESUMED; r rip = vmwp!VirtualMachine::Teardown+0x1d0-5; g"

bp vmwp!VirtualMachine::Teardown+0x1d0 ".echo RACER_2_TEARDOWN_FINISHED___UAF_GO; be 2; g"

g

### Few highlights to note

all of them RCE + UAF, to be honest most of my bugs are races due to the nature of my fuzzing, but Hyper-V is not an eve’s garden for data format bugs anyway.

bugs were not at fuzzing obvious target logic (files) path, but at the upper level (work items / packet handling)

for those bugs using code coverage-based fuzzer can shoot you in your feet at the very least. On the other side, as I mentioned above, code coverage can play an essential role if used appropriately (hinting at weak points of fuzzer instead of main logic of fuzzer)

Hyper-V is hard (?). All mentioned bugs, have some hidden quirk to reach, is not an obvious mistake by developer - quite opposite - code looks solid and well thought over, but you need magic eyes to catch those by analysis as a bug hunter, and fuzzing may change the game

very similar (cancel or Vnd+TearDown) but different in nature (more fuzzy approach vs more static approach by my understanding) examples you can find by really cool resource Mobius Band

low hanging fruits is a luxury term, it always depends. After retrospective, we may call perhaps all memory corruption bugs low hanging fruits :) what can help you finding yours LHF is persistence, accumulated experience, luck and opportunity (time).

## Teaser : Research on the Rise

In this post I covered the first bugs after a 2 year long gap I took, meanwhile I did some deep research, lol, on reinforcement learning (RL) which was a very nice refresh, and got some good knowledge that I may or may not use in my future vulnerability research. And afterward I have taken, yet again, several months off, to finish my knowledge pursue for RL and mastering of Slavic life (making own fruit booze, planting trees, eating more bananas, constructing some building which should last a year or two before collapses cuz wind rain or so, well trying new stuff :). But a few months ago I got kicked off from my ofsec slumber by mentioned Mobius Band, to remind me that I should repay my debt and do some sharing myself too. There I am again, me + Hyper-V + fresh ideas, which reflects to about 10 Tier-1 bugs I reported recently, including RCEs, Memory reads, and DoSes, new attack surface - but also traditional one. In contrast highlighted bugs were focused on containers part of Hyper-V bounty, Tier-2.

However, about 3 of my recent bugs were marked out of scope, and so the next part of this post will be focused on that. Will be less technical and less brief, as I will try to share my point of view to recent Hyper-V Bounty confusions, to prevent the frustration of security researchers, such as myself, from cooling joy by “big” to “bug” bounty assessment.

As a side note, I got also some ideas for future research and my fuzzing approaches, so stay tuned, I may or may not drop something soon. Meanwhile, those are nice drops, which may inspire you too:

I should probably put a note for the reader, that it is not necessarily their technical skill that is lacking while comprehending my technical description of bugs, but rather my interpretation was not straightforward to digest. I guess, I could write it with empathy to basics and background from the very beginning, however that would be a lot of additional work for my lazy self, and actually, it would be also counterproductive in my point of view.

I intend for the reader to work with this post as a reference and more of a highlight of my way of research. That means reading the post, getting a general idea but having open questions, answering those questions by reversing targeted area ( vmusrv, vp9fs, vmwp ) - either by targeted functionality understanding in general or by patch diffing particular CVEs - to get a better understanding, and get back to post to crack what and why I did and what I possibly omit and fail to see. Maybe looping somewhere in the process. If struggling with triggering host code by your packet, I may help with that in the next post.

I don’t recommend re-invent this wheel ‘of mine’ ( tbh I very rarely - read: close to never - repro others bugz, cuz I don’t see a point - until I am working on a technology ), but rather to use info, go beyond, or avoid the wheel and come with something I did not comprehend in my box.

## SetBacks : See you space Cowboy

As a first step, I will describe my “setbacks” with big bounties i had so far, particularly Microsoft one, as that is the only one I have experience with.

• NetBios: CVE-2017-0161 quite joy to blue-screen host from VM for the first time. Got 0k or 5k I think :) That time I am not even sure I submitted it for money. Damn, that time I didn’t care about bounties, just CVE and good feeling was enough, as that was a really cool bug for me!

• SMB2 triggerable: CVE-2020-17096 aaaa man, quite a disappointment, after 2years I am back, and moreover with promising 100k target. Got Post-Auth SMB2 but with unsigned packets! Impact? MitM attack after user auth as easy to tamper with unsigned packets.. got 5k, and dumped this research ahaha right afterward, what a depressing moment, you know I was hoping for 100k and glory :) what a change of attitude from NetBios one right? but in my defense, it was complicated to setup fuzzing for SMB2 with that signing, key, handshake, etc, a lot of work I made, ouch .. but I somehow get it, MitM was not something MSFT is looking for. Also that I trigger it through SMB does not necessarily mean it is SMB bug.

• Vid.sys CVE-2017-8664 my first Hyper-V Tier-1 RCE EVER !! The price tag that time was 50k, a few months later I think 150. Heart Bleeding! Also, I reported 2 bugs for that component, one found via automation and spend 2 months of debugging (getting hints and proving a theory, was one of the most coolest bug of mine tbh), and for the second one, I made fuzzer and trigger brother bug, but was coalesced to one CVE as one patch. Were it be two bugs if I reported in a different order or wait? Tbh I asked and they said no, their patch will get both regardless of which I reported first. But still 2 bugs vs 1 CVE, bleeding :( but I’m really proud of this one, and fuzzing was cool too!

• Containers: 2 CVE-??, opsy loose those ones, but one was described at vsmb bonus. In short nice bugs, nice fuzzing, proud feeling, 25k, fair enough. Meh, a few months later the bounty price tag raised 100k for containers bug. Meaning? If I waited, I could have 200 instead of 50, hmmm, again, ouch? :) Actually, I was cool with that, part of the evolution of bounty.

• RFG + CFG bounties for mitigation bypasses. Cool! Was happy I unlocked the achievement of Mitigation Bypass Bounty and 2 times!! Pretty proud of myself up to today actually! But then I got one more CFG bypass, Suppressed Exports, but .. that got slammed with CFG race condition bypasses out of scope.. sight :(

• Turn Off Hyper-V vulns, one was for s3video, the second was mentioned as last of three highlighted at this post CVE-2021-28314. considered to be Tier-3 aka 10x lower bounty - until proven exploitability, as in general unsure if exploitable :( Actually, I agree on that one, at least for Tier-2, for Tier-1 seems less challenging to make working exploit-poc, but that I will play with once I got that kind of bug :)

What can be learned from this? I guess first most obvious is that my greed grows exponentially :) Secondly, the bounty program, at least the MSFT one, evolves over time. Third, as it may seem sometimes unfair, based on your results can be set new standards which will benefit to others but will not be backported to your past cases (Note that I am attributing to myself here too much, that is imho my normal habit, while actually, I bet it was a coincidence and “unfortunate” timing from my side at least at most mentioned cases), and that is part of the game too.

## Out of Scope : Oo(p)S

Ok, now, in recent months it seems the Out-of-Scope part of Hyper-V bounty got a huge ramp-up. To understand why is that, let’s consider a few scenarios :

• NetBios bug, RCE on a host from VM
• RDP bug via enhanced session
• WSL2 specifics
• RemoteFX
• SMB/Ntfs kernel bug - direct(network) or through vSMB(proxy)
• WDAG

Those are all specific edge cases for particular usage. But how much impact does it have for MSFT core business model : AZURE ? And even if I can trigger from the cloud, does it really mean it is a Hyper-V design problem ?

On the other side, I agree there should be some gray zone, like not all Windows RCE bugs could escape Hyper-V, and vice versa, not every module communicating through vmbus is Hyper-V code. There are other gray wannabe zones like Admin -> Kernel boundary, kernel modules within Hyper-V sandbox, etc. Actually, for some, there are special bounty programs like Insider RCE or WDAG, and for the others programs may come.

But as far as I understand for Hyper-V bounty, Microsoft is concerned on quite a minimalistic approach - thus so high bounties, less code less place for mistakes. And what they can essentially serve on the cloud for users that way. That means, no enhanced session, no remote fx, no wsl2. Smb, NetBios, Ntfs, core ALPC, all not a Hyper-V design. Just old plain default modules, default settings. And in that regard, million dollar question is: what is triggerable in default cloud settings ? What about docker / kubernetes ?

Tbh I am not sure about the full scope of the attack surface myself, I am feeling a lack of documentation on this. Like what kind of settings can we alter, what an attacker actually can do outside of a VM. But how easy it is to provide security researchers with this kind of playground, I honestly don’t know. Therefore best thing we could do, is in case of uncertainty about attack surface, to ask them through the email, maybe provide some arguments if their explanation is not clear enough or we think they don’t see what we see, in general finding common ground of understanding. But meanwhile, in my next blog post, I go on to enumerate the default surface I am aware of.

## outro

As joyful or frustrating it may be, that seems is the game of Bug Bounty Hunter. We first need to understand that the bounty is completely in the hand of the company, if they consider bug to be worth that reward, and that they are not even obligated to do so. I think we have also grown little over ourselves in recent years. I certainly did, and I try to think in a way, that fixing my bug will not fix security itself, but sometimes I have just too big eyes my hopes were too high and my understanding and empathy towards the other side is lacking, so with this, I apologize to MSRC for the times when I do argue too hard.

I understand that there are more options, not just vendors. But on that accord, need to take into consideration that the other options require, as far as I understand, stable exploit and particular attack surface need to be in other party wanted list - basically same as with vendor, just list may differ I guess. However on top of it working on a stable exploit may be more time-consuming than finding another bug, likely more money but comes with a different responsibility / blind eye too. Also important questions like: how much money is enough? are we doing it just for money?

Like it may frustrate us to find a bug and not to be appreciated for it, it is nothing and even outrageous to compare it to the ‘frustration’ of once living beings we casually put on our dining tables without questions.

Which is, likely, the worst crime in the history of humankind towards, likely, most innocent creatures on the planet. And whatever our excuses for continuing our personal contribution to it are, there is only one thing we really need to know: that it is completly unnecessary.

Moreover in these days, when boosting our immunity and contributing our 5cents to preventing global health pandemic is topmost importance, we easily tend to forget the importance of our competence and keep relying only on others and temporary patches. While patching is important, mitigations are, if done right, stepping up the game. That being said maybe it is time to revisit the importance of fiber+vitamins(C,D,B12 among others)+minerals in our diet and extend compassion, esp. towards most vulnerable and exploited ones, in our lifestyles, now

## thanks

As my friend, Axel, said once we first met at BlueHat (after I found “my” Vid bug ): “man, you can be a millionaire!” well or something between those lines :) And yes, you can be too! Here I selected one of the emails I got from Microsoft - picked one from bugs I described in the post (usually I am not doing this, but just as proof that they do deliver):

In recap I would like to express my thanks to kostya, for his ultimate public breakthrough research which inspired me and paved way for me and others. Joe, Nico, Axel, Max and Marco for proof-reading.

Last but not least, Microsoft and MSRC, for patience with me and my arguing .. and for bounties of course.

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